Character Strategies of Body-Centered Psychotherapy

“The entire world of past experience (is) embodied in the present in the form of character attitudes. A person’s character is the fractional sum total of all past experiences.”

~Wilhelm Reich

Character Strategies form in the early developmental stages of childhood; connected with attachment theory, they are formed in response to a lack of nourishment at any given stage. As we pass through these stages, we learn certain psychological and social functions at each particular stage. The natural development of theses stages is often interrupted through relationships to significant people or other trauma such as illness or sudden loss. Interruption leaves the developmental function distorted, incompletely learned, or completely cut off.

Character is the sum of our memories, patterns, beliefs, and feelings. Character strategies are simplifications and are abstract; no one completely embodies a character, we are usually a combination. But, acknowledging character strategies provides insight into how people handle their life situations and gives ideas to how we can work with an individual.

Character Strategies and Body-Centered Psychotherapy

All body centred approaches have been built up and adapted from the work of Wilhelm Reich. Reich was the first person to reunite the body and mind in therapy as he developed the approach of character analysis, outlining the five basic character types. He found that people with similar childhood experiences had similar bodies and that people with similar bodies displayed similar psychological responses.

Character strategies were further developed in the work of Ron Kurtz, founder of the Hakomi Method and by Pat Ogden, founder of Sensorimotor Psychotherapy. Body-centered psychotherapy identifies eight character strategies.

Body centred therapies are integrative; Ron Kurtz has said: “psychotherapy is anything that works”. In Expressive Arts Therapy there is a similar mindset. Although the work is focused in the arts, the Expressive Arts Therapist also recognizes the significance of an individual’s movement and gestures as a reflection of psychological issues.

How Character Strategies Effect Our Physiology

The psychological traits associated with the character strategies are demonstrated in the body. Our musculature gets contracted to support the belief systems that we form around the functions which get truncated during our development. Psychological information can be discovered by an individual’s posture, quality of movement, muscle and bone development, facial expressions, relational style, how they look out at the world (what their eyes say), and overall impressions we intuitively get from our first interaction with a person.

It is important to note that character is something superimposed, like a costume we wear. Character strategies are not who a person actually is; through awareness and a body centred approach we can change our belief systems. Just as the body contracts to form a particular armour in response to our psychological beliefs, our psyche will also respond to changes in our body. We can notice this when taking on a different posture e.g. slumping or rounding the shoulders in a withdrawn posture vs. taking a more confident stance in a power pose.

Identifying Character Strategies

Character strategies are how we respond to the world. We are not in our strategies all of the time; we go into them when we are under stress or in trauma. Watching for our habitual way of acting in the world we can see which strategy will surface. Once we recognize it, a big part of the work is done. After noticing the strategy a few times, it will not surface as intensely, and rather than believing in the strategy we can observe that we went into it again and make a choice to respond differently.

These strategies are not all negative, however; we formed the strategies at a young age to be able to function in the world. There are very positive aspects to each strategy. The purpose of acknowledging the strategy is to be able to shift out of the aspects of the character which are holding someone back, and allow them to embrace the positive aspects of the strategy so they can flourish in the world.

The 8 Character Strategies

There are five basic character types which have been developed into eight character strategies.

Schizoid – Sensitive/Withdrawn

Oral – Dependant/Endearing and Self-Reliant/Independent

Psychopath – Tough/Generous and Charming/Manipulative

Masochist – Burdened/Enduring

Rigid – Industrious/Over-focused and Expressive/Clinging




Photo: frizzyfoto

Michelle is passionate about holistic health and self-discovery. She received her training in Nutrition, Herbalism, and Bodywork from the International Academy of Natural Health Sciences in Ottawa, ON. She studied Ayurveda and Yoga in India and later continued her Yoga studies on Koh Phangan in Thailand. Michelle truly believes that good health involves body, mind, and spirit. She loves to spend her time in walking in nature, meditating, painting, writing, and learning more about health and wellness.


  1. Hi Michelle
    I love this article and am very familiar with it’s content. I’m wondering if perhaps there is appropriate referencing of the sources of this content? Especially for the posts of the individual character strategies, which read like a copy and paste from an Hakomi training manual….
    Your thoughts?

    • Hi Anne, thanks for reading! I have the resources I used at the bottom of this first intro article – those are the same references used for all the individual character strategy articles as well. It would be a shame if it read like a copy and paste from a Hakomi training manual (which I have not seen) because I really spent a lot of time crafting the pieces of information I had. I learned about the character strategies first in an oral lecture given by an instructor of my Expressive Arts Therapy program and filled in the gaps with information from Ron Kurtz’s book and Barbara Brennan’s book, trying my best to not take anything verbatim. Does it “read like a copy and paste” because it is well organized? or because you have seen it exactly as so?

      • You did an outstanding job assimilating and explaining this information. Fantastic article, Michelle. You’re such a great writer and so good at capturing the essence of a thing and relaying in a way that flows naturally.


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